DIRECT & INDIRECT SPEECH (Part-I)

Two ways are there for reporting someone's words or thoughts.

DIRECT SPEECH.

We can report somebody' words, by repeating exactly the same words as were spoken. In other words ,the actual words are quoted (inside inverted commas) and the sentence is punctuated accordingly. " I want a cup of tea now" , Raju said.This is direct speech.

INDIRECT SPEECH

The words spoken by one person , are reported by another person , in his own words, in a different place at a different time, probably later than the time of original speech.This is indirect speech.

CHANGES WE MAKE IN REPORTED SPEECH.

Verbs are a bit backshifted,( changed to past/as the time of original speaking of words is prior to the reporting time.) adverbs of nearness in time and place are changed to that of expressing "distance"in time and place.

  1. present simple, continuous,perfect and perfect continuous verbs are changed to its corresponding past tense.
  2. Questions also lose its question form, or become statements
  3. Exclamations are expressed in statement form without exclamation mark(!).
WHAT IS REPORTING VERB? .

Indirect speech is introduced by a Verb that is called "reporting /introductory verb ". If this Verb is in the present or future tense , you needn't change the Verb in the direct speech into past.

IF THE REPORTING VERB IS IN THE PAST, tenses in the direct speech change into its corresponding past tense forms, along with change of pronouns & adverbs of time and place.

For reporting statements, these verbs are used:-- said , told, proposed, informed, stated, declared, maintained, added etc. When answer of a question is reported, "answered & replied" are used. Asked (object) ,wanted to know, enquired , and demanded , etc. are used in reporting questions.

In the case of Imperative sentences, ordered, commanded,begged, advised, requested, prayed, suggested etc.and when Exclamations are reported, exclaimed & remarked are used.

Connecting words are, "that"(in statement)who, why ,when etc(in wh-questions) if /whether(in yes/no questions, etc.

What are the adverbials that have to be changed?
  1. Today-- that day/yesterday/{Monday/ on seventh july, if you remember the exact day
  2. Now-- Then/at that time./immediately
  3. Here-- there.
  4. This-- That(when it means time as in this week, this month, this year.etc that week /that month. When "this "means 'this thing '--it.
  5. Yesterday-- The day before.( OR the previous day/on Mondays).
  6. The day before yesterday--two days before.
  7. Tomorrow--the next day/ the following day/on Sunday etc
  8. The day after tomorrow---in two days' time.
  9. Next week/Next year etc.--the following week/year etc.
  10. Last week/last year etc.--The previous week/year.
VERB " TO BE " IN PRESENT SIMPLE

(statements.)

Am, is, are-the present simple tense verb forms of "to be". Its past simple forms are, "was and were". It is a " state verb " that means something or somebody is in particular state or condition.

They are main verbs in PRESENT & PAST SIMPLE, (though they are auxiliaries in continuous forms ) but in forming questions and negative forms they function just like auxiliary verbs do,ie, negative short form "n't" is added to them directly, make questions by subject-auxiliary inversion.( not needed a separate (dummy ) auxiliary)

SIMPLE PRESENT

"SIMPLE PRESENT"is changed into past simple in indirect speech.
  • I am a teacher--I was a teacher.
  • He is lazy -- he was lazy
  • They are happy--They were happy
  • You are hungry--you were hungry

Change into reported speech(statements)

Question1:-He said, " I am a teacher"



He said that he was a teacher.


Question2:- "He is very lazy now ", she said



She said that he was very lazy then.


Question3:-He said, "They are very happy"



He said that they were very happy.


Question4:-He said,"she is good at deceiving people".



He said that she was good at deceiving people.


Question5:- She said to me, " It is cold outside now"



She told me that it was cold outside at that time.(or, then)


Question6:-"I am ready to do the work now", he said.



He said that he was ready to do the work then


Question7:- "We are out of danger", he said



He said that they were out of danger.


Question8:- She told me, "There are several hotels in this town"



She told me that there were several hotels in that town.(she informed me that.....)


Question9:-"I am sorry", he said..



He said that he was sorry. OR. He apologized. (Note-1.We can report these types of sentences using offer, warn, apologize etc.)


Question10:-" I am sorry that I was a bit late" he said.



He apologized for being a bit late


Question11:-She said," He is jealous of my success".



She said that he was jealous of her success.
OR She accused him of being jealous of her success.
OR
She said ( with an accusing tone) that he was jealous of her success.


NEGATIVE SENTENCE

Using verb"to be".



Question12:-"I am not a teacher", he said.



He told me that he was not(wasn't) a teacher.


Question13:-"He isn't very lazy now", she said.



She said that he wasn't very lazy then.


Question14:-He said, "They aren't very happy".



He said that they weren't very happy.


Question15:-He said, "She isn't good at deceiving people."



He said that she wasn't good at deceiving people.


Question16:-She said to me," It isn't cold outside now"



She told me that it wasn't cold outside then.


Question17:-"I am not ready to do the work now", he said.



He said that he wasn't ready to do the work then.
OR
He refused to do the work then.


Question18:-"We are not out of danger", he said.



He said that they were not out of danger.


Question19:-She told me, "There aren't several hotels in this town".



She told me that there weren't several hotels in that town.(she informed me that.....).


Question20:-"I am not at all sorry about what happened", he said.



He said that he was not at all sorry about what happened. OR. He didn't apologize for what happened
OR
He made no apology(gies) for what happened .(Note-2.We can report these types of sentences using offer, warn, apologize etc.)


Question21:-" I am not at all sorry that I was a bit late" he said.



He said that he was not at all sorry for being a bit late .
OR
He didn't apologize for being a bit late.
OR
He didn't offer(make ) an apology(to him/her etc.) for being a bit late.


Question22:-She said," He isn't jealous of my success".



She maintained that he wasn't jealous of her success. {Note-3.Here, when the sentence(Q(11)above) is changed into negative, the shade of accusing sense is not there. So reporting verb "maintain" is used to show that she keeps believing what she says=he isn't jealous.
OR
She claimed that he wasn't jealous of her success.
(NOTE-4:- Negative questions sometimes show surprise or enthusiasm or such feelings. Especially, negative questions are common in exclamations. Such questions are reported in special ways.see below)


Question23:- "Isn't she lovely?" he said.



He remarked how lovely she was.


Question24:-"Isn't the weather nice?"he told me.



He exclaimed that how nice the weather was.


Question25:-" Isn't it cold outside", he said.



He exclaimed that how cold it was outside.


"YES" or "NO" QUESTIONS. (VERB" TO BE")

As stated earlier, present and past simple tense forms of verb "TO BE" (am,is,are and was,were) are used as the main verb of a sentence and at the same time, they themselves function just like auxiliary verbs(1) in making the same sentence a question by inversion (placing the verb before the subject ) and without any other dummy auxiliary.

Example:

I am a teacher :- am I a teacher?

He is a teacher? :- Is he a teacher?

He was happy :- Was he happy?

These are called Yes/No questions as the answer to them are expected to be" YES/NO".

Reporting verb for reporting YES/NO questions are, ask(object), wanted to know, enquire, etc. Connecting word is "if/whether".Question becomes a statement.



Question26:-"Am I a teacher?"he told himself.



He told himself if he was a teacher


Question27:-Is he very lazy now", she said.



She asked if he was very lazy then


Question28:He said, " Are they very happy".-



He wanted to know if they were very happy.


Question29:-He asked," Is she good at deceiving people".



She asked if/whether she was good at deceiving people.


Question30:-She said to me, " Is it cold outside now"



She enquired if it was cold outside at that time.


Question31:-"Am I ready to do the work now", he told himself.



He told himself if he was ready to do the work at that time.


Question32:-"Are we out of danger", he said.



He wanted to know if they were out of danger"


Question33:-She asked, " Are there several hotels in this town?"



She enquired if there were several hotels in that town


Question34:-"Am I really sorry?", he said.



He asked himself if he was really sorry or not.


Question35:-She said,"Is he jealous of my success".



She asked if he was jealous of her success.


PRESENT SIMPLE ; WH-QUESTIONS.

Reporting words are the same as used in YES/NO question.

Here, connecting word is the question word itself. (what,when,who etc)



Question36:-" Who is he ?", she asked.



She asked who he was


Question37:-"Who are you?" she told me.



She enquired who I was


Question38:-He said," Why are they absent today"?



He asked why they were absent that day.


Question39:- "Who is good at deceiving people", he said.



He wanted to know who was good at deceiving people.
NOTE-5.(When questions starting a question word "who/what/which"+ (verb)be + complement is reported," 'be' verb" can be put before or after the complement:-
Who is the singer?" he said.
He asked who WAS the singer//. he asked who the singer WAS)


Question40:- "What is the matter?" he told me.



He asked me what the matter was.( what was the matter . See note -5)


Question41:- " Where are you now?"he asked.



He wanted to know where I was then.


Question42:-" When is the next train?" he asked.



He wanted to know when the next train was.


Question43:-" What is a chair made of?" he asked.



He wanted to know what a chair was made of.


PRESENT SIMPLE TENSE.

ORDINARY VERBS such as play, see, go write etc(other than verb "to be".)

Ordinary verbs , whether they are transtive or intransitive, they take a dummy auxiliary"do" to change the sentence into negative and question in both simple present and past simple tense

Examples.(present simple)

I teach English ( I don't teach English//Do I teach English?)

He teaches English. ( He doesn't teach English// Does he teach English?)

They teach English.

You teach English.

Past simple forms are:-

I taught English. ( I didn't teach English//Did I teach English?).

He taught English.

They taught English.

You taught English

Even when "do" is used as a main verb in a sentence, a dummy "do" is used as an auxiliary to change the sentence to its negative form and question form. Examples.

(Present simple.)

I do homework every day.

Ngative:- I don't do homework every day.

Question: Do I do homework?

He does homework.

Negative:- He doesn't do homework.

Question: Does he do homework?

(Past simple)

He did homework.

Negative: He didn't do homework.

Question: Did he do homework?

Present simple is changed into its corresponding past simple tense forms ,in indirect speech.

Example :- He works in a mine -- he worked in a mine

Question44:-"He works in a mine " they said.



They said that he worked in a mine


Question45:-"He doesn't work in a mine", he told me.



He told me that he didn't work in a mine.


Question46:- " Does he work in a mine now?" she said.



She asked if he worked in a mine then.
OR
She wanted to know whether he worked in a mine then.


Question47:-Why does he work in a mine?" he said to me



He asked(me) why he worked in a mine.


Question48:- "Doesn't he work in a mine?" she said.



She wanted to know if he didn't work in a mine.


Question49:-"Where does he work in?" he said.



He wanted to know where he worked in?
Note -6.( reporting verbs for questions.:- ask, want to know, enquire , wonder etc.)


Question50:-" I usually do homework in the evening", he said



He said that he usually did homework in the evening.


Question51:-"We often don't do our homework", they said.



They said that they didn't often do their homework.


Question52:-" Do they do their homework today", she said.



She asked if/whether they did their homework that day.


Question53:-"what time does he do his homework daily?" he asked



He wanted to know what time he did his homework daily.


Question54:-"The sun always rises in the east", he said.



He said that the sun always rose in the east.
OR
Note-7.(As the statement is always true we can ,if we wish, another option of reporting the present simple tense form without changing into past simple.)
"He said that the sun always rises in the east."


Question55:-"we usually have breakfast at seven",he said.



He said that they usually had breakfast at seven.


Question56:-" The buses run every hour on the hour", the bulletin said



The bulletin said that buses ran every hour on the hour.(the time when it is one o'clock,two o'clock, three o'clock etc.)


Question57:- " He plays tennis two times a day", the coach said.



The coach said that he played tennis two times a day.


Question58:-"Does he play tennis or cricket", she asked.



She wanted to know if/whether he played tennis or cricket.


PRESENT CONTINUOUS CHANGED INTO PAST CONTINUOUS FORM.

FORMS OF " TO BE" VERB. Only in certain limited situations , " to be " is used in continuous tense to show temporary change,with adjectives like "clever/foolish/stupid /polite etc.".

Examples:-

He is being foolish now.

They are being a bit more polite than before.

Why are you being so foolish now?

Are you being clever before us?.

Present continuous tense and its corresponding past continuous tense is given below first in bracket.

(He is being tough to deal with -- He was being tough to deal with)

Question59:-She said, " He is being tough to deal with now"



She said that he was being tough to deal with at that time.




Question60:-"Is he being tough to deal with now?" she said.



She wanted to know ( asked) if he was being tough to deal with then.


Question61:-She said , "Why is he being tough to deal with now"



She asked why he was being tough to deal with then.

(ORDINARY VERBS) IN PRESENT CONTINUOUS CHANGED TO PAST CONTINUOUS.

He is working in a mine -- He was working in a mine



Question62:-They said, " he is working in a mine now"



They said that he was working in a mine at that time.

(at that time or then)



Question63:-She said, " He isn't working in a mine now"



She said that he wasn't working in a mine then.



Question64:-She said ,"Why was he working in a mine now?"



She wanted to know why he was working in a mine then.



Question65:-"I am doing my homework now", he said.



He said that he was doing his homework then.


Question66:- I am not doing my homework now", he said.



He said that he wasn't doing his homework then.


Question67:-"Is he doing his homework now?" she said.



She asked if he was doing his homework then.


Question68:-" Why is he doing his homework now", he said.



He asked why he was doing his homework then.


Question69:-"It is going to rain now", he said.



He said that it was going to rain then.


Question70:- "The leaves are turning brown", she said.



She said that the leaves were turning brown.


PRESENT PERFECT IS CHANGED TO PAST FERFECT.

I have played tennis -- I had played tennis

Question71:-He said, "I have just played tennis".



He said that he had just played tennis.


Question72:-I said ," He hasn't played tennis today"



I said that he hadn't played tennis that day.



Question73:- he said, " has she played tennis this week?"



He wanted to know if she had played tennis that week.



Question74:-she said, " hasn't he played tennis already?"



She asked if he hadn't played tennis already.



Question75:-He said, "when has she played tennis?"



He wanted to know when she had played tennis.



Question76:-He said, "Why has he played tennis instead of cricket"' he said..



He asked why he had played tennis instead of cricket.


PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS IS CHANGED TO PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS.

He has been working in a mine for the last month.~he had been working in a mine for the last month.

Question77:-She said, " He has been working in a mine for the last month".



She said that he had been working in a mine for the previous month.



Question78:- He said , " They haven't been working in a mine since first of May.



He said that they hadn't been working in a mine since first of May.



Question79:-He asked, " Have they been working in a mine for seven years?"



He wanted to know if they had been working in a mine for seven years.


Question80:-" He asked, How long have you been working here".



He wanted to know how long I had been working there.