DIRECT & INDIRECT SPEECH (Part-II)

Two ways are there for reporting someone's words or thoughts.

PAST TENSE - SIMPLE PAST.

In indirect speech, past simple tense is changed into past perfect and past continuous tense is changed into past perfect continuous tense. There are certain exceptions,

Note 1-The past continuous tense or past simple tense in time clauses, often remains unchanged.

Example:"When he was living in Kerala, he often visited Kovalam",she said.

She said that when he was living in Kerala, he had often visited Kovalam. (Time clause/ past continuous- "when he was living in Kerala")

(Past simple)"When he lived in Kerala ,he often visited Kovalam", he said.

He said that when he lived in Kerala, he had often visited Kovalam.("When he lived/was living"....- is a time clause, hence it remained unchanged. The main clause here is "he visited" and it changed to "he had visited" ( verb in past perfect) in indirect though "he visited" is also possible.)

Note2 (a)-The past tense used to describe a state of affairs that still exists/is true, remains unchanged.

"He decided not to buy the house, because it was on a main road", she said.

She said that he had decided not to buy the house because it was on a main road.

( The house is still on the main road. So the tense remained unchanged.)

Note 2 (b)- The meaning is also important, as unchanged past simple and (when it is changed into )past perfect have differences in meaning, in certain context.

"I loved him", she said.

(a)She said that she loved him.

(b)She said that she had loved him.

In (a),It means she loved him in the past (and it is true even now).

In (b),it means she no longer loves him, though once she loved him

So whether such verb should be changed into past perfect or not, entirely depends on the meaning we want to convey.

STATEMENT.

(Verb "to be")

Question1:-"He was angry with his wife yesterday", she said.



She said that he had been angry with his wife the day before.


Question2:-"He taught English for two years", he said.



He said that he had taught English for two years


Question3:-He said, "I taught English last year".



He said that he had taught English the previous year.


Question4:- She said," He taught English to the locals a year ago".



She said that he had taught English to the locals a year before.


Question5:-"I loved him", she said.



She said that she had loved him.


Question6:- She said," I saw him on Monday"



She said that she had seen him on Monday.( Here "she said that she saw him on Monday" (unchanged form) is also possible.)


NEGATIVE SENTENCE.

( With verb "to be)

Question7:-He said," He was not healthy a year ago"



He said that he had not been healthy a year before.


Question8:-He said, "I didn't teach English to the locals a year ago".



He said that he hadn't taught English to the locals a year before


Question9:-She said,"I didn't teach English last year"



She said that she hadn't taught english the previous year.


Question10:-He said," You didn't teach English at the university a year ago."



He said that I hadn't taught English at the university a year before.


Question11:-"He didn't do his homework yesterday", said his mother.



His mother said that he hadn't done his homework the day before.


YES/NO QUESTION

(Linking word is IF /WHETHER.)

Question12:-She said," Did you teach English at the universty a year ago?"



She asked (me )if I had taught English a year before.


Question13:-"Didn't you meet her the day before yesterday?" he asked.( Negative YES/NO question)



He asked if/whether I hadn't met her two days before.


Question14:-"Did you ever go to England? she asked.



She asked (me) if I had ever gone to England.


Question15:- "Did you work in a mine last year? I said.



I asked him if he had worked in a mine the previous year


Question16:-"Did he congratulate her on her success yesterday?" I asked.



I asked if he had congratulated her on her success the day before.


Question17:-"Did they accuse her of taking the money last week? he asked.



He wanted to know if they had accused her of taking the money the previous week.


Question18:-"Did you remind her about the accident yesterday?" he said.



He enquired if I had reminded her about the accident the day before


Question19:- "Did she remind you of her mother at first sight", he asked.



He enquired if/whether she had reminded me of her mother at first sight


Question20:-"Didn't he explain his difficulty to the teacher yesterday? she said. (Negative question.)



She wanted to know if /whether he hadn't explained his difficulty to the teacher the day before


Question21:-"Did you sleep well last night?" he asked.



He asked me if I had slept well the night before.


Question22:-"Did any of you actually see the thief? " she asked.



She asked if any of us had actually seen the thief.


WH-QUESTIONS

Linking word is the "question word itself( who/what/when etc)

NOTE 3:- If the "who/what" represent the subject itself, "inversion" doesn't take place in the question. Otherwise inversion is needed.

Who wrote it? ( It is a question without inversion.)What went wrong? Who called you? But who did you call? " Who" here represent the object of "call", not the subject. Inversion means placing of the first/or sole auxiliary before the subject.who DO you like to see.)

Question23:- "Who wrote this letter?" he asked.



He asked who had written that letter.


Question24:-"What happened yesterday?" he said.



He wanted to know what had happened the day before.


Question25:-"Which book did you like most?" he asked.( note the inversion here. Subject is not "which book", but "you ". hence inversion took place.(See NOTE -3 above)



He enquired which book I had liked most.


Question26:-"Where did you live a year ago?" he asked.



He asked (me) where I had lived the previous year(or, the year before)


Question27:- "When did he do his homework?" she asked.



She asked when he had done his home work.


Question28:-"Where were you yesterday?" asked his father.(verb"to be)



His father enquired where he had been the day before.


Question29:-"Who invited you to the party?" he asked .



He wanted to know who had invited me to the party.


Question30:-Who did you invite to the party?"he asked.



He wanted to know who I had invited to the party.


Question31:-"Who did you give the money to?" he asked.



He asked who I had given the money to


Question32:-"What did you miss most when you were in prison?" she asked the ex-convict



She asked him what he had missed most when he was/(had been) in prison. ( time clause/see note 1 above)

Note:- 4 .("when he was"- is also possible -in a compound sentence like this, more than one "past perfect form" can be avoided , more over it is a time clause too. So, "when he was in prison" is also possible. Both forms are correct.)



Question33:- "How did you get into the house?" he asked.



He asked me how I had got into the house.


PAST CONTINUOUS.

Statements.

Past continuous is always changed to past perfect continuous if the sentence refers to a completed action.

Question34:-"We were working there",he said.



He said that they had been working there.


Question35:-"What were you doing there", he said, "were you trying to escape?"he asked.



He asked what I had been doing there and if I had been trying to escape.


Question36:-"They were thinking of buying a car but finally they decided not to", he said.



He said that they had been thinking of buying a car but finally they had decided not to.


Question37:-"He was reading a book when the phone rang", he said.



He said that he had been reading a book when the phone rang.


TIME CLAUSES.

Question38:-"When I was living in England the war broke out", he said.



He said that when he was living in England the war had broken out.( "when he was living".... is a time clause, hence remains unchanged.&" the war broke out" ... is main clause, it can either remain unchanged or can be changed to past perfect as usual.)


Question39:-She said, " I decided not to buy the house as it was on a main road", he said.( It was on a main road" is a fact that is still true or existing. Past tense referring to such fact always remain unchanged.)



She said that she had decided not to buy a house as it was on a main road.


Question40:-He said,"I was working in a mine for a year". (here no time expression/ hence always change it to past perfect.)



He said that he had been working in a mine for a year.


Question41:-"He was reading a book when I called him", she said.



She said that he had been reading a book when she called him.("when she called him" is a time clause)


PAST PERFECT & PAST PERFECT CONTINUOUS remain unchanged in Indirect speech

.

Question42:-She said, "he had gone abroad last week".



She said that he had gone abroad the previous week.


Question43:- She said, "he had been working in a farm for two years by last year".



She said that he had been working in a farm for two years by the previous year .


FUTURE TENSE.

(Simple future)

Future simple tense is changed to present conditional

What are conditional forms?

They are the past equivalent of all the future forms with will, shall,can, may etc.

How are they formed?

By changing the first auxiliary in all the future tense forms (of "will, shall and may, can,etc.") into its past forms(= would, should, might, could etc.)

Example:-

I will succeed -- I would succeed. ( I can/may succeed>I could/might succeed)

He will be going -- he would be going.( I can be/may be going> I could be /might be going)

They will have gone -- they would have gone.( I can /I may have gone.> I could /might have gone .)

He will have been working -- He would have been working.

(I can/may have been working>I could /I might have been working).

Remember one thing. Now" I will /I would forms are commonly used instead of "I shall/should " and they both are replaced by the short form" I'll"/ "I'd" in almost all places, without bothering if it is I will / I shall or I would/should. In order to be safe, use the short forms always. Change into indirect speech.

Question44:-"You will get wet", I told them.



I told them that they would get wet.


Question45:-"I will succeed in the next attempt " he said.



He said that he would succeed in the next attempt.(he'd succeed)


Question46:-"I shall succeed next time", he said



He said that he would succeed next time.


(" I shall/we shall" forms are changed into "would" when the subject changes into third person or second person.)

Question47:-"I will wash it tomorrow", she said.



She said that she would wash it the following day.

OR

She promised that she would wash it the following day.



Question48:-He said, " I will burn the rubbish the day after tomorrow".



He said that he would burn the rubbish in two days' time.


Question49:-"I will buy the tickets today itself", he said.



He said that he would buy the tickets that day itself.


Question50:-At the station he said, "I will be here again tomorrow".



He said that he would be there again the next day.


Question51:- "I suppose he will bring back the books tomorrow", she said.



She supposed he would bring back the books the following day.


WITH OTHER MODAL AUXILIARIES having future meaning.

Question52:-"I can swim", I told them.



I told them that I could swim.


Question53:-"I can speak English", he claimed.



He claimed that he could speak English.


Question54:-"It may rain" he said to me.



He told me that it might rain.


Question55:- "He may come soon," he said.



He said that he might come soon.


Question56:-"He can drive on highways", he said .



He said that he could drive on highways.


NEGATIVE SENTENCES.

Question57:-I will not succeed in the next attempt " he said.



He said that he wouldn't succeed in the next attempt.


Question58:- "I shall not succeed next time", he said .



He said that he would not succeed next time.


Question59:-"I won't wash it tomorrow", she said.(will not=won't)



She said that she wouldn't wash it the following day.


Question60:-He said, " I will not burn the rubbish the day after tomorrow".



He said that he would not burn the rubbish in two days' time.


Question61:-"I will not buy the tickets today itself", he said.



He said that he would not buy the tickets that day itself.


Question62:-At the station he said, "I will not be here again tomorrow".



He said that he would not be there again the next day.


Question63:-"I suppose he will not bring back the books tomorrow", she said.



She supposed he would not bring back the books the following day.


NEGATIVE SENTENCES WITH OTHER MODAL AUXILIARIES having future meaning .

Question64:-"He may not come soon," he said.



He said that he might not come soon.


Question65:-"He can not drive on highways", he said .



He said that he could not drive on highways.


Question66:- "He may not pass the driving test" I said.



I said that he might not pass the driving test.


Question67:-"It may not rain", he said.



He said that it might not rain.


YES/NO QUESTIONS IN FUTURE SIMPLE.

Question68:-"Can he swim?", I said



I asked (him)if he could swim.


Question69:-"May it rain?" he asked.



He wanted to know if/whether it might rain.


Question70:-" Will she succeed in the next attempt " he said.



He asked if she would succeed in the next attempt.(she'd succeed)


Question71:-"Shall I succeed next time", he said.



He wanted to know if/whether he would succeed next time.


Question72:-"Will he wash it tomorrow", she said.



She wanted to know whether he would wash it the following day.


Question73:-" Will they burn the rubbish the day after tomorrow?" he said.



He wanted to know if they would burn the rubbish in two days' time.


Question74:-" Will he buy the tickets today itself", she said.



She wanted to know if he would buy the tickets that day itself.


Question75:-At the station he said "Will I be here again tomorrow?"



At the station he wondered if he would be there again the next day. (Speculations are reported using "wonder" as reporting verb)


Question76:-"May he come soon," he said.



He wanted to know if he might come soon.


Question77:-"Can he drive on highways", he said .



He wanted to know if he could drive on highways.


WH-QUESTIONS IN FUTURE SIMPLE

Question78:-"When will you go for your driving test? "he asked.



He asked when I would go for my driving test.


Question79:-"Where will you play tomorrow?" She asked him.



She wanted to know where he would play tomorrow.


Question80:-"When will your result be published?" he asked her.



He wanted to know when her result would be published.


Question81:-"How often will he go there", she asked me.



She asked me how often he would go there.


FUTURE CONTINUOUS TENSE.

Question82:-"On Monday next week I will be taking photos ", he said.



He said that on Monday the following week he would be taking photos.


Question83:-"We shall be travelling all night" he said.



He said that they would be travelling all night.


Question84:-"He will be doing his test tomorrow", she said.



She said that he would be doing his test the following day.


Question85:-"When I get home, my wife will be watching TV", he said.



He said that when he got home, his wife would be watching TV.


Question86:-"He can be driving on highways tomorrow", I said.



I said that he could be driving on highways the following day.


Question87:- "It may be raining during the meeting this evening", he said.



He said that it might be raining during the meeting that evening.


NEGATIVE SENTENCES.



Question88:-"On Monday next week I will not be taking photos ", he said.



He said that on Monday the following week he would not be taking photos.


Question89:-"We shall not be travelling all night" he said.



He said that they would not be travelling all night.


Question90:-"He will not be doing his test tomorrow", she said.



She said that he would not be doing his test the following week.


Question91:-"When I get home, my wife will not be watching TV", he said.



He said that when he got home, his wife would not be watching TV.


Question92:-"He can not be driving tomorrow as he is ill" he said.



He said that he could not be driving the following day as he was ill.


YES/NO QUESTIONS IN FUTURE CONTINUOUS

Question93:-"On Monday next week, will I be taking photos ?", he said.



He wanted to know if/whether he would be taking photos on Monday the following week.


Question94:-"Shall we be travelling all night?" he said.



He wanted to know if they would be travelling all night.


Question95:-"Will he be doing his test tomorrow?", she said.



She asked if he would be doing his test the following week.


Question96:-"When you get home, will your wife be watching TV?", he said.



He wanted to know whether/if his wife would be watching TV when he got home.


WH-QUESTIONS/ FUTUR CONTINUOUS.



Question97:-"What will you be doing on Monday next week?" he asked her.



He asked her what she would be doing on Monday the following week.


Question98:-"How long shall we be travelling tonight ?" he said.



He wanted to know how long they would be travelling that night.


Question99:-" Where will you be hiding when the police come?"she asked.



She wanted to know where I would be hiding when the police came.


FUTURE PERFECT is changed into CONDITIONAL PERFECT.

(Conditional perfect is 'the future perfect form' with one change."would,should,might,could etc are used instead of "will,shall,may,can etc.)

Question100:-"I will have visited Kovalam on Sunday next week", he said.



He said that he would have visited Kovalam on Sunday the following week.


Question101:-"He will have completed his course by 2020", she said.



She said that he would have completed his course by 2020.


Question102:-"I will have washed all the curtains by the time you return tomorrow", he said.



He said that he would have washed all the curtains by the time I returned the following day.


Question103:-"She may have taken it away with her", he said.



He said that she might have taken it away with her.


Question104:-She said," He may have torn it up".



She said that he might have torn it up.


Question105:-"You can have driven up to the beach", he said.



He said that I could have driven up to the beach.


NEGATIVE FORM.



Question106:-"I will not have visited Kovalam on Sunday next week", he said.



He said that he would not have visited Kovalam on Sunday the following week.


Question107:-"He will not have completed his course by 2020", she said.



She said that he would not have completed his course by 2020.


Question108:- "I will not have washed all the curtains by the time you return tomorrow", he said.



He said that he would not have washed all the curtains by the time I returned the following day.


Question109:- "She may not have taken it away with her", he said.



He said that she might not have taken it away with her.


Question110:- "She may not have completed it by tomorrow", he said.?



He said that she might not have completed it by the following day.


Question111:- She said," He may not have torn it up".



She said that she might not have torn it up.


Question112:- "You can not have driven up to the beach next day ", he said.



He said that I could not have driven up to the beach the following day.


YES/NO QUESTIONS.



Question113:- "Will you have visited Kovalam on Sunday next week?", he said.



He asked if I would have visited Kovalam on Sunday the following week.


Question114:-"Will he have completed his course by 2020?", she said.



She wanted to know if /whether he would have completed his course by 2020.


Question115:- " Will you have washed all the curtains by the time I return tomorrow?", he said.



He asked if I would have washed all the curtains by the time he returned the following day.


Question116:- "May she have taken it away with her?", he said.



He asked if she might have taken it away with her.


Question117:- "May she have completed it by tomorrow?", he said.



He asked if she might have completed it by the following day.


Question118:- She said," May she have torn it up?".



She asked if she might have torn it up.


Question119:-" Can you have driven up to the beach?", he said.



He wanted to know if I could have driven up to the beach.


WH- QUESTIONS.

Question120:- "Where will you have visited by Sunday next week", he said.



He asked where I would have visited by Sunday the following week.


Question121:- "Where will he have done his course by 2020", she said.



She asked where he would have done his course by 2020.


Question122:- "How will you have washed all the curtains by 5pm. ? ", he said.



He wanted to know how I would have washed all the curtains by 5 pm.


Question123:- "What may she have taken away with her?", he said.



He asked what she might have taken away with her.


Question124:- "When may she have completed it ?", he said.



He asked when she might have completed it.


Question125:- She said,"When may he have torn it up?".



She wanted to know( or asked) when he might have torn it up


Question126:-"Where can he have gone into hiding", she wondered.



She wondered where he could have gone into hiding.


Question127:-" How can you have driven up to the beach?", he said.



He asked how I could have driven up to the beach.


FUTURE PERFECT CONTINUOUS is changed to CONDITIONAL PERFECT CONTINUOUS.



Question128:- "I will have been visiting Kovalam on Sunday next week", he said.



He said that he would have been visiting Kovalam by Sunday the following week.


Question129:- "He will have been doing his course since 2010", she said.



She said that he would have been doing his course since 2010.


Question130:-" He will have been doing homework at 5 o' clock today" , she said



She said that he would have been doing homework at 5 o'clock that day.


Question131:- "I will have been washing all the curtains by the time you return.



He said that he would have been washing all the curtains by the time I returned.


Question132:- "She may have been taking it away with her by next week ", he said.



He said that she might have been taking it away with her by the following week..


NEGATIVE SENTENCE

Question133:- "I will not have been washing all the curtains by the time you return.



He said that he would not have been washing all the curtains by the time I returned.


Question134:- "She may not have been taking it away with her before next Monday", he said.



He said that she might not have been taking it away with her before the following Monday.


Question135:- She said," He may not have been working there next month".



She said that she might not have been working there the following month..


Question136:- "You can have been driving up to the beach next summer ", he said.



He said that I could have been driving up to the beach the following summer.


YES/NO QUESTIONS.



Question137:- "Will you have been washing the curtains for six hours by six o'clock today?" he asked.



He asked if I would have been washing the curtains for six hours by six o' clock the following day..


Question138:- "Will you have been taking it away for a week on next Sunday ?" I asked him.



I asked him if he would have been taking it away for a week on the following Sunday .


Question139:- "Can you have been driving up to the beach next summer ?" he said.



He wanted to know if I could have been driving up to the beach following summer.


WH-QUESTIONS.



Question140:- Why will you have been washing the curtains for six hours by 4 o'clock today?" he asked.



He asked why I would have been washing the curtains for six hours by 4 o' clock that day.


Question141:- "What will you have been taking away tomorrow ?", I asked him.



I asked him what I would have been taking away the following day.